Jantar Mantar – New Delhi
Jantar Mantar (Yantra – instruments, mantra – formulae) was constructed in 1724. Maharaja Jai Singh of Jaipur who built this observatory went on to build other observatories in Ujjain , Varanasi and Mathura. Jai Singh had found the existing astronomical instruments too small to take correct measurements and so he built these larger and more accurate instruments.
Jantar Mantar in Delhi is one of the five observatories built by the Maharaja of Jaipur – Sawai Jai Singh II. Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II was also a noble in the Mughal court and a passionate astronomer. The Jantar Mantar was built to trace the astronomical phenomena and to ascertain scientific data from the same. The observatory in Delhi emphasizes the thirst for scientific knowledge of the Mughals. It is said that the Maharaja of Jaipur was disconcerted with the errors of the instruments in the observatory and took upon himself the feat of amending the errors and making the instruments accurate for recording astronomical phenomena. After the completion of Jantar Mantar, the observatory was functional for seven years. Data of each day was collected and charted and dedicated to the reigning emperor. The name ‘Jantar Mantar’ is a colloquial form of the original terms ‘yantar’ and ‘mantra’.
The observatory of Jantar Mantar in Delhi is a camouflage of modern art. ‘Samrat Yantra’ or the sun dial is the most imposing instrument in the observatory. The sun dial is a huge structure in yellow with a 27m long arm placed at an angle of 27 degrees. The sun dial calculates the time of a day accurately. There are two pillars that record the longest and shortest day in the year. This instrument is known as the ‘Mishra Yantra’ the other instruments are used to trace astronomical phenomena from other planets and stars. The observatory is a fascinating sight with huge instruments of masonry.
Why it is called Jantar Mantar?
Jantar means yantra (instruments) and Mantar means formulae. Actually both these words are from Sanskrit language. Jantar Mantar contains 13 architectural astronomy instruments. I hope that you all are know that Maharaj jai singh was king of Jaipur and he has built total 5 monuments in India. Jantar Mantar is one of those Monuments of India which was built by Maharaj jai singh.
Maharaj Jai Singh noticed that present astronomical instruments are too small for taking accurate measurement. And because of this He built very large and accurate instruments which are known as Jantar Mantar. In 1724 Jantar Mantar was constructed in which stone and marbles are used for whole structure. The Ram yantra, The samrat Yantra, Jayprakash yantra and The mishra yantras are the distinct instruments of Jantar Mantar.